Tag Archives: romance

Geirau Cymraeg/A Glossary of Welsh

To aid all readers of my Pendyffryn: The Conquerors series and my first novel, Traitor’s Daughter, I include a Glossary of Welsh Words (Geiriau Cymraeg) that are used in each of the books (six in all to date). The Glossary is the final section of the book (both digital and print) but I thought having the Glossary accessible someplace else would be of help. Therefore, I’m including it here and also on my website, lilydewaruile.com, so these words are readily available at any time.

The Glossary also includes a pronunciation guide. Readers are surprised when they see words like pendefig or hafodydd, how easy they are to pronounce. Some words, such as Llanfair­pwllgwyngyll­gogery­chwyrn­drobwll­llan­tysilio­gogo­goch, are difficult even for me, but these words are not in my books!

Here then, is the entire Glossary section from my latest paperback edition of Revival: Book IV: Pendyffryn: The Conquerors. Not all of the words are in all of the books and some words in other books in the series have additional words, but this will help readers get a quick start on learning the wonders of the Welsh language!

Glossary of Gymraeg (Welsh Words)

In most instances, the following words are used so their meaning is explained within the context of the story. I have taken a few liberties with the plural, adjective and possessive forms of some words. Welsh follows the Latin & other Romance languages noun/adjective (as in vin rougevino rosso /gwin coch) rather than the Teutonic adjective/noun (red wine) but to do that in a book written in English would be a step too far. I wanted to use some Welsh to give some flavour of the language Caryl and her friends speak. As in Invasion, Book 1 of this series, Christophe Maides is conversant in the Celtic language, having a greater facility for linguistics than his close friend, Jehan-Emíl deFreveille.

Welsh also employs a similar form of expressing ownership: the object is dominant and the owner is subordinate: her cloak is ei chlogyn hi. Caryl’s cloak is clogyn Caryl. For the purposes of this story, I have used the English possessive construction of adding ‘apostrophe s’. I simplified the mutations that occur in specific juxtapositions of words starting with certain letters, such as in ei chlogyn hiei designates (in this instance) female when followed by hi. If followed by ‘e’ then the mutation is male and is ei glogyn e. These mutations are the aspirate and soft mutations, respectively. There is also the nasal mutation which replaces the beginning consonant with an ‘ng’, ‘ngh’, ‘m’, ‘mh’, ‘n’, or ‘nh’ when the word is proceeded by ‘yn’ (and a number of other instances that I won’t mention!) as ‘c’ becomes ‘ngh’; ‘g’ becomes ‘ng’; ‘b’ becomes ‘m’; ‘p’ becomes ‘mh’; ‘t’ becomes ‘nh’. Caryl refers to her husband as fy ngŵr.

You can hear how these words are pronounced at http://translate.google.com/. The emphasis is always on the next to last syllable, as in most Romance languages. Below, I have used some English words to illustrate the sounds. ‘S’ is always an ‘es’ sound, never ‘z’. ‘R’ is always rolled. ‘CH’ is always aspirated as in ‘loch’, never as in ‘choo-choo’ or ‘k’ as in the Italian ‘che’. ‘DD’ is pronounced as the ‘th’ in ‘with’. ‘TH’ is the ‘th’ sound as in ‘pith’.

Many double letters (dd, ll, th, ph, ng, etc.) are considered a single letter in Welsh and follow their closest single letter (d, l, t, p g etc.) in the Welsh dictionary.

Welsh vowels are the same as in Italian, open and full—one of the reasons why Welsh is called the language of heaven. Welsh also has more vowels than English, not only “and sometimes Y and W”: AEIOUYW.

Arawn: the lord of the underworld (AHR-ow*n) *as in ‘ouch’

Baban: infant (BAH-bahn)

Beudy: Dairy, Milking Parlor (BAY-dee)

Blodyn: flower (BLOW-din) – also a term of endearment

Buarth: farmyard (BEE-ahrth)

Caer: fort (CEYEr)

Calan Gaeaf: beginning of winter/All Hallow’s Eve (CAH-lahn GEYE-ahv)

Calan Gwanwyn: beginning of spring (CAH-lahn GWAHN-win)

Cariad: love (cahr-EE-ahd)

Carthen: blanket (CAHRth-en)

Cawl: Meat (Lamb) Stew (COWl)

Cromlech: burial tomb (CROHM-leCH – CH as in loch)

Cymraes: Welshwoman (CUHM-rice)

Cymro: Welshman (CUHM-row)

Diawl: Devil (DEE-ahwl)

Duw annwyl: Dear God (DEE-you AHN-noo-eel)

Gelyn: enemy (GEL-en – G is always hard as in ‘gas’)

Gwraig: wife (GOOR-eyeg)

Gŵr: man/husband (GOOr)

Gwyl Dewi: St. David’s Day, March 1st (GOO-eel DOW-ee)

Hafod(ydd): small dwelling(s) (HAH-vod(iDD), DD is pronounced as in ‘with’)

Mam: Mother (MAHM)

Meddyg: medic (MEDD-ig, DD is pronounced as in ‘with’)

Menyw: woman (MEHN-you)

Merch: girl (MEHRch – CH as in loch)

Mwydyn: worm (MOOee-din)

Pendefig: prince/nobleman (pen-DEHV-ig)

Pennaeth: chieftain (PEN-eyeth)

Pryfyn: insect (PRUH-vin)

Saeson: Saxon (SIGH-son)

Titw: small bird/tit (TIT-oo)

Trwsus: trousers (TRUE-sis)

Tylwyth: family/clan (TUHL-ooeeth)

Uffern: hell (EE-fehrn)

Uwd: porridge (IEWD)

Ystad: estate (UHS-tahd)

Don’t be shy! Welsh is the language of heaven and of singing. In fact, singing in Welsh is the best way to learn the pronunciation. To get you started, here is a link to a wonderful folk song that I’ve sung in public at a St. David’s Day event while my lawyer played her harp! Morfa Rhuddlan means the Marsh of Red Land (literally). It is a lament for the deaths of Caradog and all his Welsh warriors in a battle with Offa in 796AD, the words were written by Ieuan Glan Geirionydd. A number of harpists have recorded the tune, but it is the words/poetry of the song that capture the true pathos of the history of Cymru (Wales).

If you have time, please listen to the other songs that Thomas L. Thomas sings, you will recognize some of the tunes which have become theme tunes for films and much more. If there is anything that can explain my love of Welsh, Wales and the Welsh people, it is the music they have created that speaks so eloquently to the heart.



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Filed under Cymraeg/Welsh Language, Cymreig/Welsh, Cymru/Wales, Hanes Cymru/Welsh History, Y Cymry/Welsh People

Read an Ebook Week at Smashwords


Eres Books has enrolled all my novels in the Read an eBook Week kicking off on Sunday, March 3, 2013.  Both the first book of the Tywi series, Traitor’s Daughter (a best seller at All Romance eBooks with 4 and 5 star reviews on Amazon), and the first two books of the Pendyffryn: The Conquerors series will be offered at a 50% discount.

Just search for the book’s page and the discount code will be near the top of the page, on the right, opposite the cover image. The code for these three books is REW50 and is valid until midnight, March 9th, 2013.

With Betrayal, Book 3 of Pendyffryn: The Conquerors launching in just 15 days, you can start your collection of this Welsh medieval romance series at half the retail price: the first two books for the price of one. Salvation, Book 2: Pendyffryn: The Conquerors is also a best seller at All Romance eBooks.

The promotion ends on the 9th of March. Eight days after the end of the Read an Ebook Week, you can add to your collection of The Conquerors with the third book, Betrayal – “The best of men…the most treacherous of lovers.”

Not yet a Smashwords reader, author or publisher? Sign up before or during the sale to take advantage of this opportunity.

All of my novels are available on the iBookstore as well as all major online retailers.

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Filed under Cymru/Wales, Hanes Cymru/Welsh History, Rhamant/Romance, Y Cymry/Welsh People

Betrayal: Book 3, Pendyffryn: The Conquerors

LilyDewaruile_ Betrayal200“The best of men… the most treacherous of lovers.” Betrayal will be released on March 17th, 2013. This is the third novel in the Pendyffryn: The Conquerors 5-book series.

Betrayal returns to Gwennan and the invader who captured her heart. Now only known by the name she gave him, Ieuan Emyr must find a way to survive and keep his wife’s love. Neither will be without complications while his former employer threatens to take all Ieuan has fought to gain for his children.

Only days after her marriage to the invader, once known as Jehan-Emíl deFreveille, his mistress, Charlotte de Guidry, reveals a secret that devastates Gwennan’s confidence in her husband. Her unhappiness threatens her life and those of her friends.

Betrayal will be available on Smashwords and shortly after its publication will join Invasion and Salvation on the iBookstore, All Romance eBooks, Barnes & Noble, Kobo, Diesel and Sony.

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Filed under Cyfraith/Celtic Law, Cymraeg/Welsh Language, Cymreig/Welsh, Cymru/Wales, Rhamant/Romance

Invasion at iBookstore

Invasion: Book 1, Pendyffryn: The ConquerorsInvasion, Book 1, is now at the iBookstore.

This is the first book in this family saga which begins in the last years of the life and reign of Rhodri Mawr, 876AD.

Gwennan Pendyffryn, the only child of an aging chieftain, assumes command of the garrison at the gaer, a small fortified village at the opening of this mountain valley. Her first thought is to accept the garrison commander as her husband, but as her father has said, he has only one redeeming quality: a quality that his other qualities do not encourage her to discover.

Assuming command by stealth comes naturally to Gwennan. Keeping her land free of the foreign invader when she fails to kill him becomes a deadly pursuit when her real intent becomes known.

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Filed under Hanes Cymru/Welsh History, Rhamant/Romance, Y Cymry/Welsh People

Turbulent Times, Violent Men

Invasion: Book 1, Pendyffryn: The Conquerors“You will know the man…”

One woman stands against the INVASION of her home. One man holds her life in his hands. And… “he was not a man who needed a lot of women. He was a man who needed a lot of one woman. This woman.”

I am proud to announce the first book of the Pendyffryn: The Conquerors series will be published in a few days’ time. Invasion has undergone a few transformations since I began work on the romance, a few years after my first encounter with Cymru (Wales). I so fell in love with the country that I began to write before I knew much of the history between the Cymry and the Saeson.

Invasion is a work of the imagination, in spirit with the forces and passions that existed in the early years of co-existence between the invaders and the Celtic people who had made Briton their home.

Many thanks to Hot Damn Designs for their stunning work on the covers of the first three books in this five-book series.

Invasion: November 2013
Salvation: January 2013
Betrayal: February 2013


Filed under Cyfraith/Celtic Law, Cymraeg/Welsh Language, Cymreig/Welsh, Cymru/Wales, Hanes Cymru/Welsh History, Rhamant/Romance, Y Cymry/Welsh People